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Absolutely Ridiculous English Spelling

Lesson 6. Some Rules to Spell By 

When to double the final consonant: When a one-syllable word has a single vowel followed by a single consonant at the end, the final consonant is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel. Confusing? Let's look at some examples.

This leads to words like runner, running, hitter, hitting, spinner, spinning

Do you see why some of the words were eliminated?  push and jump have 2 consonants at the end, not one;  shoot and eat have two vowels in front of the final consonant.  Those words do not follow this rule, so you will not double their final consonants when you add a suffix.

bat batter batting
fit fitter fitting
run runner running
trim trimmer trimming
nod nodded nodding
mar marred marring

The same rule works with a large group of words having more than one syllable IF those words end in a single vowel followed by a single consonant AND if the final syllable is the accented, or stressed, syllable.  Examples: commit, equip, confer, excel.  Words that do NOT fit this rule are: happen, benefit, retreat - the first two do not fit because they are not stressed on the last syllable, and retreat does not because there are TWO vowels before the final consonant.

WORD + ER or +ED + ING
begin beginner beginning
control controller controlling
commit committed committing
admit admitted admitting

Special Exceptions:  picnic, panic, traffic all add K before the suffix to keep the Hard K sound in front of the vowel which begins the suffix; picnicked, panicked, trafficker, trafficking.

Adding suffixes to words that end with 'e': 

like ing liking
like ly likely
care ing caring
care ful careful
induce ing inducing
induce ment inducement

Exceptions: When a word ends with ce or ge the final e usually remains in order to maintain the soft c or g sound in the word:  courage + ous = courageous, notice + able = noticeable. This rule is explained on the More Rules page.

Adding suffixes to words ending with Y:

donkey  donkeys 
annoy  ance annoyance
angry ly angrily
carry ing carrying
bury es, ed buries. buried

Forming plurals of Nouns: There are several different rules, each with its list of words that follow the rules and another list of words that do not.  We will just give a brief summary  and a few examples of the major rules.

Words ending in Consonant + O add ES buffaloes, vetoes, potatoes (exceptions: silos, egos, dynamos, and several musical terms such as solos, altos, pianos)
Some words change final F to V and add ES wolf = wolves, knife = knives, life = lives, loaf = loaves, leaf = leaves, calf = calves, sheaf = sheaves, thief = thieves, elf = elves, wife = wives, shelf = shelves
Compound nouns add S or ES to the main word mothers-in-law, attorneys-at-law, courts-martial
Non-English words use the plural form from the original language. fungus = fungi, medium = media, datum = data, analysis = analyses, criterion = criteria, beau = beaux

When the letter S sounds like Z:  There are many situations in English in which the letter S will be pronounced as if it were a Z.  This usually happens at the end of a word in plurals or Third Person Singular forms of verbs.  The following chart will show you the S's that are pronounced as Z's, shown in RED.

please aces cares dolls fumes homes lies nose
pleasure axes caves does games his longs pays
treasure aims calls ends girls is mails rise
tease balls cows fails goes jails moves stays
cheese bears dares flames has kills names tiles

There are hundreds of other examples of these Z words.  Sometimes there is a pattern: 

Words that end in -s, -ss, -ch, -sh, -x, -z that need to add -ES to form the plural or the 3rd person singular form - the final S will sound like Z.

vase - vases fuss - fusses touch - touches wish - wishes box - boxes fizz - fizzes

For words that end with the sounds of -b, -d, -g, -l, -ll, -m, -n, -r, -v , when S is added to form the plural or the 3rd-person singular, that final S will sound like Z.  Here are some examples:

cab - cabs dad - dads bag - bags feel - feels flame - flames star - stars
club - clubs lid - lids frog - frogs pull - pulls noun - nouns glove - gloves

If you ever want to know how to pronounce the final S, check a decent English  dictionary for the key to pronunciation.

This will get you started learning to spell English correctly.  As we have noted a few times, the final solution is to READ, STUDY, PRACTICE, WRITE, MEMORIZE.  If you are taking the time to read these pages, then you are motivated enough to learn on your own how to spell these strange English words.  Our suggestion is:

We guarantee that if you follow this procedure, you will not only learn to spell the words, you will make these words a permanent part of your English vocabulary.  Good Luck!

To learn some more spelling rules, go to the Next Page.

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